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La récente réunion de W3Québec à laquelle j'ai assisté dernièrement m'a ouvert les yeux sur les certitudes que je m'étais forgées concernant l'accessibilité web.

La discussion portait sur la définition de l'accessibilité. Dans sa formulation d'alors, celle-ci mentionnait les deux grandes composantes que l'on connaît :

  • l'accessibilité pensée spécifiquement pour les utilisateurs handicapés
  • l'accessibilité dite "universelle" (qui profite à tous quel que soit le browser, le moyen d'accès à Internet)

Cette dernière est une acception récente du terme "accessibilité". Enfin disons pour être plus précis que la prise de conscience en est récente. On pourrait en effet attribuer la paternité de ce concept à Tim Berners Lee, considéré comme le père d'Internet, autant dire que ça ne date pas d'hier...

Toutes les bonnes raisons "d'oublier" les handicapés quand on parle d'accessibilité pour se concentrer sur l'accessibilité universelle sont développées dans l'article d'Eric Daspet paru sur Cybercodeur. Quelque peu polémique (surtout dans le ton malicieusement provoquant), le texte a eu un écho très positif dans la communauté. Beaucoup, moi le premier, en ont réutilisé les arguments afin de "vendre" l'accessibilité. Comme le faisait remarquer Denis Boudreau le côté "moralisateur" insistant sur l'obligation -légale dans certains pays- d'offrir un contenu aux personnes dites handicapées n'était pas vraiment "sexy". Au contraire, parler de l'amélioration du positionnement dans les moteurs de recherche, de la possibilité d'avoir un site consultable directement sur un téléphone portable ou un PDA accrochait bien plus souvent l'auditoire.

Par une manoeuvre finalement assez tordue, on essayait ainsi de vendre l'accessibilité, non pas sur ses objectifs initiaux (relire les recommandations WAI pour se les remémorer), mais sur les avantages collatéraux qui en découlaient.

A mon sens, on touche là aux limites de l'approche cloisonnée consistant à promouvoir de manière indépendante l'accessibilité, la sémantique web, la validation HTML. Comme je le soulignais déjà dans un billet d'humeur précédent sur le piège de l'accessibilité, on a sans doute beaucoup à perdre à essayer de faire passer notre discours sur la qualité web sans essayer d'expliquer le message dans sa globalité. L'accessibilité n'est qu'une composante parmi d'autres du nouveau web que nous essayons tous de promouvoir.

Il peut paraître séduisant -car plus simple- d'avancer par petites touches, en glissant un soupçon d'accessibilité ici, un peu d'XHTML valide par là. Ceci est d'autant plus compréhensible quand on connaît la réalité des projets et des leurs contraintes (timing, budget, compétence des équipes). Pourtant, je reste convaincu qu'il est dans notre intérêt d'agir au grand jour, pour ne pas avoir à jouer sur les concepts comme expliqué plus haut. Cohérence et sincérité, voilà les deux seules motivations qui devraient nous guider.

#conceptionWeb

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