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Article original 17.09.03 - Je me suis fait épingler par mail aujourd'hui. Sujet de récrimination, la phrase tirée de mon log précédent : Qu'un site fait avec Dreamweaver par un graphiste dans sa web agency ne valide pas parce qu'il ne sait même pas de quoi il s'agit, c'est normal, chacun son job. Pas de bol pour moi, le seul graphiste féru de CSS lit mon weblog ;-)

Mes plates excuses à mon lecteur créatif froissé, mais le syndrome du graphiste en matière d'XHTML+CSS est une réalité que je constate quotidiennement. Il est clair qu'à la base, la conception à base de blocs (par opposition à la conception à base de tableaux) a d'abord attiré l'attention des gens qui s'occupent de la technique plutôt que de l'aspect graphique des sites, ceci expliquant les sites web trop carrés. Ceci au même titre qu'un patron se sert mal de Word en utilisant les boutons de sa barre d'outils plutôt que d'utiliser les styles de texte.

Les graphistes qui font du web ne s'intéressent pour la plupart pas au côté technique, ils préfèrent passer du temps sur leur maquette dans Photoshop que de se creuser les méninges sur les bugs d'affichage du site une fois affiché dans IE. De même, l'outil fétiche de cette génération de webdesigners est plutôt Dreamweaver qui permet de mettre en page un site visuellement et rapidement (en recourant massivement aux tableaux pour structurer la page). Changer de méthode est donc pour eux un plus gros bouleversement que pour les programmeurs qui utilisaient les tableaux certes, mais qui codaient déjà avec un éditeur de texte. Car en l'absence d'outils performants pour le moment (et le dernier Dreamweaver n'y change rien ou presque), concevoir en blocs impose d'utiliser un éditeur de texte plutôt qu'un outil WYSIWYG.

Je persiste et je signe donc, la conversion des graphistes web à l'XHTML+CSS est un vrai challenge, tant mieux si de nouveaux adeptes apparaissent (et me lisent !).

Mise à jour 23.09.03 - Effectivement, des graphistes me lisent ! Certains critiquent d'ailleurs (sans doute à raison) le sectarisme de mon propos; qu'ils n'oublient pas le parti pris quelque peu "provoc" de ce blog, qui en pimente le contenu selon certains. D'autres partagent mon avis comme Gaëtan, dont je publie ci-dessous l'opinion -elle aussi un peu provoc- in extenso.

Le graphiste, ... Il vient souvent d'écoles que l'on nomme "d'Arts Appliqués". C'est cette notion d'Arts Appliqués qui est importante. Que signifie-t'elle ?

"Le graphiste" est théoriquement amené à travailler dans une industrie (imprimerie, studios divers), une entreprise de service (web agency, agence de pub...) et non à se pavaner dans une galerie d'art. "Sa mission" est donc d'appliquer son "art" à une industrie, et non d'essayer de plier l'industrie à ses petits caprices visuels.

Un designer travaille selon les limites de la physique, un architecte fait de même. Les règles de base (la physique des matériaux,...) de ces métiers sont intransgressables. Cela n'empêche en rien la création... ni de voir fleurir de belles architectures, ni de superbes objets aux designs les plus farfelus.

Lorsque le graphiste crée un document pour l'imprimerie, ce document répond à des tas de normes :

  • Des normes de mise en page;
  • des normes de typographie (presque aussi strictes que l'XHTML);
  • des normes de contraintes d'impression (dues aux méchants imprimeurs);
  • etc.

Le graphiste est donc bien contraint de respecter, dans la nature même de son métier, des règles assez précises. (Même si certaines de ces règles font appel à un peu de sensibilité).

"Le graphiste" doit se jouer des normes, de l'(x)HTML, des CSS et autres contraintes... Mais il ne doit pas le faire en violant ces règles, mais en les connaissant à fond. Au même titre que les règles de typo existent pour éviter de rendre un document illisible, les normes ne sont pas des barrières mais des gardes-fou afin de rendre l'Internet plus accessible (entre autres).

Mais cette connaissance pour le moment passe par le code, par la lecture d'une documentation des plus obscures et indigestes. Le W3C qui s'améliore cependant et les sources se diversifient et se vulgarisent. L'arrivée des blogs (qui souvent parlent de normes...) est un souffle nouveau par rapport à tout ça.

Mais c'est à ce moment que le graphiste en général s'arrête, car les outils à disposition ne sont effectivement pas suffisants. (Je suis du même avis que toi concernant DW 2004...) et cette obligation de passer par le code rebute souvent "le graphiste"...

Mes outils actuels sont essentiellement des éditeurs de texte (JEDIT sur Mac OS X est très puissant notamment sur la capacité à valider un doc selon une DTD précise), quelques sites de références ainsi qu'un outil de validation. Rien de bien "HuisiWuig", ni de très joli (genre plein d'icônes super... comme Dreamweaver ;)) Mais qu'est-ce que je m'amuse! Enfin un défi plus qu'interessant... passionnant !

#conceptionWeb

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